The Science of GMOs

The GMO-producing companies spread propaganda that there is "consensus" in the scientific community, that GMOs have somehow been proven to be safe and healthy.  Nothing could be further from the truth.

Here are the scientific studies and academic papers that we know about* which implicate GMOs, the genetic modification technology, and/or GMO-growing practices:


  • “gastric and uterine differences” and “higher rate of severe stomach inflammation” in pigs fed a GMO diet. -- Carman et al., “A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet”  Journal of Organic Systems 8 (1): 38-54; Open access full text:  [peer-reviewed scholarly journal] 
  • “variable effects on different parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract” -- Ewen SW, Pusztai A (October 1999) “Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine” Lancet 354 (9187): 1353–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)05860-7. PMID 10533866 online access at [peer-reviewed general medical journal] 
  • “alterations in intestinal and peripheral immune response of weaning and old mice” -- Alberto Finamore, et al, "Intestinal and Peripheral Immune Response to MON810 Maize Ingestion in Weaning and Old Mice," J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (23), pp 11533–11539, November 14, 2008 [peer-reviewed scientific journal] 
  • tumors, cancers, endocrine disruptions and hormone disruptions in rats linked to GMOs -- Séralini et al., “Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize” in Food and Chemical Toxicology 50:4221-4231 [peer-reviewed scientific journal]  
    • The biotech industry mounted significant pressure to have the journal retract the Seralini study.  Scientific commentary about this highly controversial retraction here and here . 
    • Scientific paper declares that "the rejection ... is not scientifically justified" -- Meyer and Hilbeck, Environmental Sciences Europe 2013, 25:33  [peer-revied journal]
  • "GM soybean intake can influence some liver features during ageing ... and stress conditions" -- Malatesta M et al. "A long-term study on female mice fed on a genetically modified soybean: effects on liver ageing." Histochem Cell Biol 2008a;130:967–77 online at  [peer-reviewed scientific journal] 
  • embroyo development in pre-implantation stages affected by GMO diet -- Cisterna B, Can a genetically-modified organism-containing diet influence embryo development? A preliminary study on pre-implantation mouse embryos. Eur J Histochem. 2008 Oct-Dec;52(4):263-7 [peer reviewed journal]
  • "pancreatic microscopic features were disturbed" in rats fed GMO soybean -- Magaña-Gómez, Javier A. "Pancreatic response of rats fed genetically modified soybean" J. Appl. Toxicol. 2008; 28: 217–226 Online access at  [peer-reviewed scientific journal] 
  • "conduction blocks" and "increased incidence of arrhythmias" observed in rats and rabbits -- Gress, S. et al, "Cardiotoxic Electrophysiological Effects of the Herbicide Roundup® in Rat and Rabbit Ventricular Myocardium In Vitro" (2014). Cardiovascular Toxicology, Epub 2 Dec 2014.  [peer-reviewed journal]
  • "28 people had experienced apparent allergic reactions" from consumption of genetically modified corn products -- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Investigation of Human Health Effects Associated with Potential Exposure to Genetically Modified Corn," Report to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, June 2001 public record at
  • "The results of most studies with GM foods indicate that they may cause some common toxic effects such as hepatic, pancreatic, renal, or reproductive effects and may alter the hematological, biochemical, and immunologic parameters" -- Dona A, Arvanitoyannis IS. "Health risks of genetically modified foods." Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009;49:164–75 online access at  [peer-reviewed]
  • GLYPHOSATE (Roundup):
  • "Neurological damage ... autism ... premature birth" and "gut dysbiosis" linked to glyphosate -- Seneff, S. , Swanson, N. and Li, C. (2015) Aluminum and Glyphosate Can Synergisti-cally Induce Pineal Gland Pathology: Connection to Gut Dysbiosis and Neurological Disease. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 42-70. doi:10.4236/as.2015.61005.  [peer-reviewed journal]
  • "increased NHL [non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma]" in men connected to exposure to dicamba  -- McDuffie, Helen, et al, "Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Specific Pesticide Exposures in Men," Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers PrevNovember 2001 10; 1155  [peer-reviewed journal]
  • "increased risk of birth defects in male offspring" associated with pre-conception exposure to dicamba -- Weselak M et al, "Pre- and post-conception pesticide exposure and the risk of birth defects in an Ontario farm population" Reprod Toxicol. 2008 Aug;25(4):472-80. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.05.060. Epub 2008 May 24. online at [peer-reviewed journal]
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  • “substantial increases in the number and volume of herbicides applied” as a result of GMO-growing practices -- Benbrook, Charles M., “Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. – the first sixteen years”, Published in Environmental Sciences Europe, Vol. 24:24 doi:10.1186/2190-4715-24-24, 28 September 2012.  [peer-reviewed scientific journal] 
  • antibiotic resistance marker genes escaped from genetically modified crops were found in bacteria in all China's rivers -- Eva Sirinathsinghji, “GM Antibiotic Resistance in China's Rivers”, ISIS Report 13/02/13, available online
  • 81% of the Monarch butterflies wiped out by GMO-growing practices -- Pleasants, J. M. and Oberhauser, K. S. (2013), Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 6: 135–144. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00196.x [peer-reviewed journal]
  • “engineering genes into a recipient plant’s DNA is nearly always accompanied by small or substantial deletions or rearrangements of recipient plant DNA, insertions of DNA sequences not intended for insertion” (in other words: unintentional mutations are very common) -- Latham 2006, paraphrased by Belinda Martineau, phD 
  • transgenes (genetically altered genes) cannot “be retracted once they have escaped, thus the damage to the purity of non-GM seeds is permanent” -- Altieri, M. A. (2005) “The Myth of Coexistence: Why Transgenic Crops are not Compatible with Agroecologically Based Systems of Production.”, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 25, 4: 366.   [peer-reviewed academic journal]
  • SOIL:
  • organic soils can sequester carbon, reducing global warming. -- See list of scientific papers at and
  • Glyphosate-based herbicides "reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms" --Gaupp-Berghausen, M. (2015). Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations. Scientific Reports, 2015/08/05 online. Vol. 5, 12886. 10.1038/srep12886
  • Glyphosate reduced soil water infiltration after a heavy rainfall. -- Zaller, J. (2014). Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem. Scientific Reports, 2014/07/09 online. Vol. 4 5634. 10.1038/srep05634
  • Glyphosate application negatively affects functionality of mycorrhizal fungi -- Druille, M. (2013). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are directly and indirectly affected by glyphosate application. Applied Soil Ecology, Volume 72, 2013, Pages 143-149, ISSN 0929-1393.  ( [peer-reviewed journal]
  • Bt insecticidal proteins released through the plant roots may damage the development and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi -- Liu, W. (2010). Do genetically modified plants impact arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi? Ecotoxicology 19: 229. Print ISSN 0963-9292. Online ISSN 1573-3017.

Other disciplines

Economics, Sociology, Anthropology, etc.
  • "most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates" -- Domingo, Jose, "A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants" Environment International, Volume 37, Issue 4, May 2011, Pages 734–742 online at
  • “the past decade has been marked by exceptional concentration and privatisation of seeds in the hands of a few transnational corporations” -- Mulvaney, P, “Corporate Control of Seeds: Limiting Access and Farmers Rights” IDS Bulletin (Impact Factor: 0.54). 02/2009; 36(2):68 - 73. DOI: 10.1111/j.1759-5436.2005.tb00199.x  [peer-reviewed academic journal]
  • "The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops for human nutrition and health has not been systematic" -- Magaña-Gómez JA, "Risk assessment of genetically modified crops for nutrition and health." Nutr Rev. 2009 Jan;67(1):1-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00130.x. Online access  [peer-reviewed journal]
  • "Dramatic increases in concentration in the seed business, coupled with aggressive efforts to vertically integrate the agricultural sector and to institute contract-based production of commodities," and found the need for "aggressive antitrust oversight over further mergers and consolidations, assuring that more germ plasm is in the public domain, and collective action." -- Harl, Neil E "The Age of Contract Agriculture: Consequences of Concentration in Input Supply," Journal of Agribusiness 18(1), Special Issue (March 2000):115S127 online at
  • lists of GMO studies promoted by the biotech industry are distorted; the studies they list are not truly independent -- debunked in "The So-Called 'Consensus': Why the Debate on GMO Safety is Not Over" Food and Water Watch online at
  • peer-reviewed studies of the health risks or nutritional value of GMOs show "a strong association ... between author affiliation to industry (professional conflict of interest) and study outcome" -- Diels, Johan et al, "Association of financial or professional conflict of interest to research outcomes on health risks or nutritional assessment studies of genetically modified products" Food Policy 36 (2011) 197–203 [peer-reviewed journal] Online access
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Responses from repected organizations

* If you know about other resources which belong on this list, please contact us